Isotropic Theory edit page

While the linear elastic model for anisotropic materials is based on the fourth order elastic stiffness tensor C the linear elastic model for isotropic models is most often developed in terms of the elastic moduli shear, bulk, Youngs modulus and the Poisson ratio.

The single crystal stiffness tensor

Lets start our discussion with a single crystal stiffness tensor of Albite.

% density (g/cm3)
 rho= 2.6230;
%
% crystal symmetry & frame
cs = crystalSymmetry('-1', [8.290 12.966 7.151], [91.18 116.31 90.14]*degree,...
  'x||a*','y||b', 'mineral','An0 Albite 2016');

% the stiffness tensor C in (GPa)
C = stiffnessTensor(...
  [[  68.30   32.20   30.40    4.90   -2.30  -0.90];...
  [   32.20  184.30    5.00   -4.40   -7.70  -6.40];...
  [   30.40    5.00  180.00   -9.20    7.50  -9.40];...
  [    4.90   -4.40   -9.20   25.00   -2.40  -7.20];...
  [   -2.30   -7.70    7.50   -2.40   26.90   0.60];...
  [   -0.90   -6.40   -9.40   -7.20    0.60  33.60]],...
  cs,'density',rho)
C = stiffnessTensor (An0 Albite 2016)
  density: 2.623            
  unit   : GPa              
  rank   : 4 (3 x 3 x 3 x 3)
 
  tensor in Voigt matrix representation:
  68.3  32.2  30.4   4.9  -2.3  -0.9
  32.2 184.3     5  -4.4  -7.7  -6.4
  30.4     5   180  -9.2   7.5  -9.4
   4.9  -4.4  -9.2    25  -2.4  -7.2
  -2.3  -7.7   7.5  -2.4  26.9   0.6
  -0.9  -6.4  -9.4  -7.2   0.6  33.6

The effective isotropic stiffness tensor

An isotropic Albite material we assume here to consist of randomly oriented grains forming an uniform (isotropic) texture. In this case the Voigt and Reuss avarages provide upper and lower bounds for the elastic properties of the material.

[C_iso_Voigt,C_iso_Reuss,C_iso_Hill] = mean(C,uniformODF(C.CS))
C_iso_Voigt = stiffnessTensor (xyz)
  density: 2.623            
  unit   : GPa              
  rank   : 4 (3 x 3 x 3 x 3)
 
  tensor in Voigt matrix representation:
 118.33  35.47  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47 118.33  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47  35.47 118.33      0      0      0
      0      0      0  41.43      0      0
      0      0      0      0  41.43      0
      0      0      0      0      0  41.43
 
C_iso_Reuss = stiffnessTensor (xyz)
  density: 2.623            
  unit   : GPa              
  rank   : 4 (3 x 3 x 3 x 3)
 
  tensor in Voigt matrix representation:
 93.83 34.16 34.16     0     0     0
 34.16 93.83 34.16     0     0     0
 34.16 34.16 93.83     0     0     0
     0     0     0 29.84     0     0
     0     0     0     0 29.84     0
     0     0     0     0     0 29.84
 
C_iso_Hill = stiffnessTensor (xyz)
  density: 2.623            
  unit   : GPa              
  rank   : 4 (3 x 3 x 3 x 3)
 
  tensor in Voigt matrix representation:
 106.08  34.81  34.81      0      0      0
  34.81 106.08  34.81      0      0      0
  34.81  34.81 106.08      0      0      0
      0      0      0  35.63      0      0
      0      0      0      0  35.63      0
      0      0      0      0      0  35.63

The elastic moduli

The actual elastic properties of the material depend on the geometric microstructure and can not be computed without additional knowledge.

Based on the Voigt effective stiffness tensor we may now compute upper, directional independend bounds for all elastic moduli:

G = C_iso_Voigt.shearModulus
K = C_iso_Voigt.bulkModulus
E = C_iso_Voigt.YoungsModulus(xvector)
nu = C_iso_Voigt.PoissonRatio
G =
   41.4333
K =
   63.0889
E =
  101.9759
nu =
    0.2306

From the elastic moduli to the elastic tensors

Furthermore, any two of them entirely describe the linear elastic behaviour of the material. In particular, we may recover the isotropic stiffness tensor from the bulk and shear moduli alone:

% the matrix entries
C11 = K+(4/3)*G ; C12=C11-2*G; C44=(C11-C12)/2;

% this gives exactly the effective Voigt stiffness tensor as computed above
stiffnessTensor(...
  [[  C11     C12    C12    0.0     0.0    0.0];...
  [   C12     C11    C12    0.0     0.0    0.0];...
  [   C12     C12    C11    0.0     0.0    0.0];...
  [   0.0     0.0    0.0    C44     0.0    0.0];...
  [   0.0     0.0    0.0    0.0     C44    0.0];...
  [   0.0     0.0    0.0    0.0     0.0    C44]],cs)
ans = stiffnessTensor (An0 Albite 2016)
  unit: GPa              
  rank: 4 (3 x 3 x 3 x 3)
 
  tensor in Voigt matrix representation:
 118.33  35.47  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47 118.33  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47  35.47 118.33      0      0      0
      0      0      0  41.43      0      0
      0      0      0      0  41.43      0
      0      0      0      0      0  41.43

or from the Youngs modulus and the Poisson ratio

S11 = (1/E); S12 = (-nu/E); S44 = 2*(S11-S12);

inv(complianceTensor(...
 [[  S11     S12    S12    0.0     0.0    0.0];...
 [   S12     S11    S12    0.0     0.0    0.0];...
 [   S12     S12    S11    0.0     0.0    0.0];...
 [   0.0     0.0    0.0    S44     0.0    0.0];...
 [   0.0     0.0    0.0    0.0     S44    0.0];...
 [   0.0     0.0    0.0    0.0     0.0    S44]],cs))
ans = stiffnessTensor (An0 Albite 2016)
  unit: GPa              
  rank: 4 (3 x 3 x 3 x 3)
 
  tensor in Voigt matrix representation:
 118.33  35.47  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47 118.33  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47  35.47 118.33      0      0      0
      0      0      0  41.43      0      0
      0      0      0      0  41.43      0
      0      0      0      0      0  41.43

Formulas between the elastic moduli

As a consequence, Youngs modulus and the Poisson ratio can be computed directly from the bulk and shear modulus (and vice versa)

% formulae for the Poisson ratio
(E/G-2)/2
(3*K-E)/(6*K)

% formulae for the Youngs modulus
2*G*(1+nu)
3*K*(1-2*nu)
ans =
    0.2306
ans =
    0.2306
ans =
  101.9759
ans =
  101.9759

Lame constants

The second way to represent the elastic behaviour of an isotropic medium is by means of the Lame constants

lambda = nu/(1-2*nu) /(1+nu) * E;
mu =G;

In terms of the Lame constants the stiffness tensor is given by

2 * mu * stiffnessTensor.eye(cs) + lambda * dyad(tensor.eye,tensor.eye)
ans = stiffnessTensor (An0 Albite 2016)
  unit: GPa              
  rank: 4 (3 x 3 x 3 x 3)
 
  tensor in Voigt matrix representation:
 118.33  35.47  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47 118.33  35.47      0      0      0
  35.47  35.47 118.33      0      0      0
      0      0      0  41.43      0      0
      0      0      0      0  41.43      0
      0      0      0      0      0  41.43

and we may directly formulate Hooks law

eps = strainTensor.rand(cs);

sigma = C_iso_Voigt : eps
sigma = stressTensor (xyz)
  rank: 2 (3 x 3)
 
  65.34  37.21  49.66
  37.21 100.03  38.28
  49.66  38.28  124.1

in terms of the Lame constants by

sigma = stressTensor(2 * mu * eps + lambda * trace(eps) * tensor.eye)
sigma = stressTensor (An0 Albite 2016)
  type: Lagrange 
  rank: 2 (3 x 3)
 
  65.34  37.21  49.66
  37.21 100.03  38.28
  49.66  38.28  124.1

Hashin Shtrikman Bounds

While the Voigt and Reuss bounds are tight without additional assumptions, the extreme cases require a very specific layered microstructure. If one additionally assumes that the material is quasihomogeneous, i.e., it is constant elastic properties within each subregion that is significantly larger then the grain size, then the Voigt and Reuss bounds are to wide. More narrow bounds for this settings have been established by Hashin and Shtrikman in 1962.

The following deviation follows the paper by J.M. Brown (2015) Determination of Hashin-Shtrikman bounds on the isotropic effective elastic moduli of polycrystals of any symmetry, Computers & Geosciences, 80 (2015) 95-99.

The upper and lower Hashin-Shtrikman bounds for the bulk and shear moduli are found as a solution of an optimzation problem. Lets first set up the search domain

% define a 2 dimensional domain of bulk and shear moduli
KMin = 1; KMax = 150; % minimum and maximum bulk moduli
GMin = 1; GMax = 150; % minimum and maximum shear moduli
Ko = linspace(KMin,KMax,300);
Go = linspace(GMin,GMax,300);
[G0Mesh,K0Mesh] = meshgrid(Go,Ko);

Next the initial stiffness tensor is updated such that the residual stiffness tensor R remains either possitve or negative definite.

tic
[khs, ghs, def] = HashinShtrikmanModulus(C,K0Mesh,G0Mesh);
toc

subplot(1,2,1)
imagesc(Go,Ko,khs)
set(gca,'YDir','normal')
title('khs')
xlabel('shear modulus')
ylabel('bulk modulus')
colorbar%('location','southoutside')
axis equal tight

subplot(1,2,2)
imagesc(Go,Ko,ghs)
set(gca,'YDir','normal')
xlabel('shear modulus')
ylabel('bulk modulus')
title('ghs')
colorbar%('location','southoutside')
axis equal tight

%subplot(1,3,3)
%imagesc(G0,K0,minmax)
%set(gca,'YDir','normal')
%title('minmax')
%colorbar('location','southoutside')
%xlabel('shear modulus')
%ylabel('bulk modulus')
%axis equal tight
Elapsed time is 1.409792 seconds.

lower and upper Hashin Shtrikman bulk and shear modulus bounds

We find the lower Hashin Shtrikman bound of the bulk modulus by minimizing the effective Hashin Shtrikman bulk modulus over the positive definite domains of the residual stiffness tensor R. Accordingly we find the upper bound as the maximum over the negative definite domain.

khsLower = max(khs(def==1));
khsUpper = min(khs(def==-1));

ghsLower = max(ghs(def==1));
ghsUpper = min(ghs(def==-1));

Lower and upper bounds are marked in the plots below.

subplot(1,2,1)
hold on
[i,j] = find(khs == khsLower);
plot(Go(j),Ko(i),'o','MarkerEdgeColor','w','linewidth',2)
[i,j] = find(khs == khsUpper);
plot(Go(j),Ko(i),'o','MarkerEdgeColor','w','linewidth',2)
hold off

subplot(1,2,2)
hold on
[i,j] = find(ghs == ghsLower);
plot(Go(j),Ko(i),'o','MarkerEdgeColor','w','linewidth',2)
[i,j] = find(ghs == ghsUpper);
plot(Go(j),Ko(i),'o','MarkerEdgeColor','w','linewidth',2)
hold off

Comparison of the bounds

Finaly we compare the upper and lower Hashin Shtrikman bounds with the Voigt and Reuss bounds.

KReuss = C_iso_Reuss.bulkModulus;
KHill = C_iso_Hill.bulkModulus;
GVoigt = C_iso_Voigt.shearModulus;
GReuss = C_iso_Reuss.shearModulus;
GHill = C_iso_Hill.shearModulus;

disp(' ')
disp('bulk modulus')
cprintf([K,khsUpper,KHill,khsLower,KReuss],...
  '-Lc',{'Voigt' '+HS' 'Hill' '-HS' 'Reus'})
disp(' ')
disp('shear modulus')
cprintf([GVoigt,ghsUpper,GHill,ghsLower,GReuss],...
  '-Lc',{'Voigt' '+HS' 'Hill' '-HS' 'Reus'})
disp(' ')
bulk modulus
  Voigt     +HS    Hill     -HS    Reus
63.0889  60.326 58.5696  57.107 54.0503
 
shear modulus
  Voigt     +HS    Hill     -HS    Reus
41.4333 36.7537 35.6344 32.8495 29.8355

Note, that upper and lower bounds for all other elastic moduli can be computed from these upper and lower bounds of the bulk and shear modulus.